The American Revolution in 7 languages – a wiki study

For a long time, I’ve wanted to do a project where I collect world history books from various nations and compare their portrayal of the same events. Unfortunately, I don’t really have access to history books from around the globe; and, even if i did, I wouldn’t be able to translate them. So, for now, I’m settling for doing what I’m calling a wiki study: I’m comparing the intro section of a Wikipedia article as it appears in several languages. For my first foray into wikistudies, I’ve chosen the American Revolution. Enjoy.




A couple FYIs first: I’m presenting these as translated into English by Google Translate. The original language versions of these articles are at the end of this post. All intros were retrieved from Wikipedia on September 25, 2015. The translations are a little rough; clearly Google Translate has room for improvement. I’ve cleaned up the translations a bit for the sake of coherence.

English

The American Revolution was a political upheaval that took place between 1765 and 1783 during which colonists in the Thirteen American Colonies rejected the British monarchy and aristocracy, overthrew the authority of Great Britain, and founded the United States of America.

Starting in 1765, members of American colonial society rejected the authority of the British Parliament to tax them without any representatives in the government. During the following decade, protests by colonists—known as Patriots—continued to escalate, as in the Boston Tea Party in 1773 during which patriots destroyed a consignment of taxed tea from the Parliament-controlled and favored East India Company.[1] The British responded by imposing punitive laws—the Coercive Acts—on Massachusetts in 1774 until the tea had been paid for, following which Patriots in the other colonies rallied behind Massachusetts. In late 1774 the Patriots set up their own alternative government to better coordinate their resistance efforts against Great Britain, while other colonists, known as Loyalists, preferred to remain subjects of the British Crown.

Tensions escalated to the outbreak of fighting between Patriot militia and British regulars at Lexington and Concord in April 1775, after which the Patriot Suffolk Resolves effectively replaced the Royal government of Massachusetts, and confined the British to control of the city of Boston. The conflict then evolved into a global war, during which the Patriots (and later their French, Spanish and Dutch allies) fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783). Patriots in each of the thirteen colonies formed a Provincial Congress that assumed power from the old colonial governments and suppressed Loyalism. Claiming King George III’s rule to be tyrannical and infringing the colonists’ “rights as Englishmen”, the Continental Congress declared the colonies free and independent states in July 1776. The Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, and proclaimed that all men are created equal. Congress rejected British proposals requiring allegiance to the monarchy and abandonment of independence.

The British were forced out of Boston in 1776, but then captured and held New York City for the duration of the war, nearly capturing General Washington and his army. The British blockaded the ports and captured other cities for brief periods, but failed to defeat Washington’s forces. In early 1778, following a failed patriot invasion of Canada, a British army was captured by a patriot army at the Battle of Saratoga, following which the French openly entered the war as allies of the United States. The war later turned to the American South, where the British captured an army at South Carolina, but failed to enlist enough volunteers from Loyalist civilians to take effective control. A combined American–French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in 1781, effectively ending the war in the United States. A peace treaty in 1783 confirmed the new nation’s complete separation from the British Empire. The United States took possession of nearly all the territory east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, with the British retaining control of Canada and Spain taking Florida. In the period after the peace treaty in 1783, Loyalists were subjected to extreme suppression and acts of arbitrary violence, including murder by lynching, despite a promise by patriot leaders to British negotiators that Loyalist rights would be respected. A large proportion were driven off their land and forced to flee as refugees to Canada.[2][3]

Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of a democratically-elected representative government responsible to the will of the people, but which as a result of the ‘Three-Fifths Compromise’ allowed the southern slaveholders to consolidate power and maintain slavery in America for another eighty years.[4] The new Constitution established a relatively strong federal national government that included an executive, national judiciary, a bicameral Congress that represented both states in the Senate and population in the House of Representatives. Congress had powers of taxation that were lacking under the old Articles. The United States Bill of Rights of 1791 comprised the first ten amendments to the Constitution, guaranteeing many “natural rights” that were influential in justifying the revolution, and attempted to balance a strong national government with strong state governments and broad personal liberties. The American shift to liberal republicanism, and the gradually increasing democracy, caused an upheaval of traditional social hierarchy and gave birth to the ethic that has formed a core of political values in the United States.[5][6]

Russian

The American Revolution – the political events in the British colonies of North America in the years 1775-1783, that completed the formation of the United States (США). These events were defined by an unwillingness to submit to the interests of the colonial metropolis. The “American Revolution” is not synonymous with the “American Revolutionary War”, the latter of which is a part of the former and represents the final stage of the revolution.

French

The American Revolution was a period of political changes after 1763 in the thirteen British colonies in North America that resulted in the independence war of the United States against Great Britain (1775-1783). As an episode in the founding of the American nation and the birth of the United States, the revolution manifested itself in violence against the British authorities, a war against the mother country and social unrest.

In order to amortize the cost of the Seven Years War (1756-1763), Britain imposed taxes on its thirteen colonies in North America without consulting the inhabitants; American colonists protested to King George III and Parliament of the United Kingdom and launched a revolt that tried to stifle the metropolis by sending troops. On July 4, 1776, representatives of the colonies met in Philadelphia and adopted the Declaration of Independence, and after a series of setbacks of the Continental Army commanded by George Washington, the war against Britain turned to the advantage of the Americans. The insurgés (in English: “insurgents”) received the help of French volunteers and the government of Louis XVI, Spain and the United Provinces. In 1783, London had to recognize the independence of the United States. The new country was endowed with a Constitution (1787) which was inspired by the Enlightenment. George Washington was elected president in 1789; but the first years of the new country were marked by political opposition and social tensions.

The American Revolution created a new state, a federal republic with new institutions. She emerged a distinct American nation of the British people, with its symbols and myths. She had a significant impact in Europe, especially in France. It caused significant intellectual changes guided by republican and democratic ideals, which still underlie American values ​​today. It gave rise to textes de référence (Declaration of Independence, Constitution), in which are affirmed rights to freedom, equality and the pursuit of happiness. A fundamental moment in the history of the country, the American Revolution also aroused opposition between advocates of a strong central government and those who preferred to give more autonomy to the states. It also provoked tensions between the Founding Fathers about the place of the people in politics. The matter was subsequently the subject of numerous historiographical debates about the nature of the events and their influence in Europe. The American Revolution left a lasting impression on American culture by inspiring writers, painters and filmmakers.

Hebrew

The American Revolution is a political event that occurred in the latter half of the eighteenth century in North America, during which 13 colonies broke away from the British Empire to form an independent state with a democratic system of government – the United States. The revolution consisted of several stages conducted in various settings over the years, the beginning of a revolutionary consciousness aware of changes to the status quo between Britain and the colonies, which included heavier taxation of the colonists and an undermining of the authority of local legislatures. Taxation caused indignation which led to demonstrations and local, bloody skirmishes such as the Boston Tea Party and Boston Massacre. Clashes became a real war in 1775. During the war, the colonies declared their independence formally in 1776, and thus rejected any connection to the British Crown. The war ended, in actuality, in 1781 with the victory of the settlers in the Battle of Yorktown, and, formally, in 1783 with a treaty in Paris in which Britain recognized the independence of the United States.

Along with the wartime activities were revolutionary leaders who established the independent nature of the administration. The settlers wanted to create a mechanism to keep their democratic rights and yet feared too little government control might lead to weakness, ineffectiveness, anarchy and disintegration. In 1788, they approved a constitution that defined the Administration and the relationship between the central federal government and between the states. The Constitution was completed in 1791 with the Bill of Rights which included ten amendments to the Constitution and which are designed to strike a balance between protecting civil rights and the creation of a stable and effective government.

The United States was the first democratic state since ancient Athens was defeated by Philip of Macedon in 336 BC. Revolution adopting democratic rule over the rule of aristocratic and monarchical government has caused far-reaching social changes wherever it became a governance system.

Spanish

Revolución de las Trece Colonias, estadounidense o de Estados Unidos, are expressions used in the literature in castellano to translate the Anglo-Saxon expression “American Revolution,” whose translation for “Revolución americana” (more usual),  although supported by the DRAE, is not recommended for the use of the word “American”

As both a revolutionary process (the first of the “era of revolutions” that opens the Contemporary Age) and a process of decolonization (the first “independence”), this revolution meant changes and internal conflicts and external conflict, including for the “Thirteen Colonies” of British North America and its metropolis (the UK). From this process arose a new nation (the United States) which was established legally in texts of such great importance as the Declaration of Independence (July 4, 1776) and the Constitution (17 September 1787).

Since the 1760s the public opinion of the thirteen colonies became aware of its identity and unity of interests in a growing opposition against the British government, which did not respond to calls for restraint; until the dynamics of mutual challenges led to an armed conflict, the War of Independence (1775-1783, although the decisive victories on the battlefield took place in October 1781).

The American example was decisive, for the revolutionary leadership in 1789 passed to France and then to Spain and Spanish America, in what has been called the “Atlantic cycle” of bourgeois revolutions or  revoluciones liberales.

Japanese

United States, independence of the (Independence of the United States). In the second half of the 18th century, the 13 colonies of the British Empire in North America offered resistance to colonial policies and became a republic independent as a nation through the American Revolution (あめりかどくりつかくめい, UK : American Revolution ) which will be described in detail.

Chinese

American Revolution refers to the period from 1765 to 1783 consisting of a series of events and trends that resulted in thirteen North American colonies breaking from the British Empire and creating the United States of America. The American War of Independence (1775 –1783) was part of the revolution, but the revolution in Lexington and Concord before (Concord) fired the first bullet had already begun, and in the United Kingdom in Yorktown surrender after yet continue. John Adams wrote:  “Before the war began, the revolution has already had an impact, and already exists in people’s hearts.” About the meaning and scope of the American Revolution, there are different ways of interpretation. Generally, we agree about the revolution originated in the French and Indian War (1754 –1763 years), and ends in 1789 George Washington was elected as the first US president .  One of the points on the two extremes of the American Revolution, the American Revolution in fact can not be regarded as revolutionary, because it does not dramatically change the entire Colonial civil society, but just a distant government (the British government) replaced with a local Government only. This view of the contrary view is that the American Revolution was a unique and radical historical events, change it brings to the world history have far-reaching impact. Now most view is situated between these two extremes. The United States as the first major country from colonial rule, revolution somehow encourage other sovereign state ruled against colonial war of independence , but also on the subsequent French Revolution played an important role.

Afrikaans

The American Revolution refers to the period during the second half of the 18th century, when the Thirteen Colonies – later as the United States would be known – their independence from the British Empire got.

In this period, the Colonies leave their internal disputes and join in revolt against British rule came, one of the main reasons for this was the British economic policy in respect of colonies. The colonists’ own Puritan heritage and the freedom theories of the Enlightenment also played a major role. The American Revolutionary War ensued and from 1775 to 1783 lasted. The war has its climax with the American Declaration of Independence in the year 1776 and the Colonies’s military victory in 1781 reached.

France has a significant role played in the war, including the organization of an anti-British coalition. The French supplied the Americans with money and ammunition and a fleet and troops sent to America who played a decisive role in the Battle and Siege of Yorktown. With their defeat near Yorktown was the battle for the British lost. The alliance with France meant that Spain and the Dutch Republic later entered the war in support of the Americans.

The American Revolution with a number of far-reaching intellectual and social changes accompanied in American society and including the ideals of republicanism take root among the colonial population. In a number of states are heated debates about the role of democracy in government waged. The republican and democratic ideas overthrew the old traditional social hierarchy and led to a new ethic that the fundamental principle of American political values ​​would form. [1]

The revolutionary period in 1763 began when the French military threat to the British North American colonies ended. Great Britain was determined the cost of the war against France at least partially by pay the colonies and a number new taxes start charging. These measures were very unpopular and the settlers even considered illegal because they do not have an elected political representation in the British parliament does not have.

After riots in Boston broke out, British troops were sent against the rebels, while the settlers mobilized their militia. In 1775 took place the first battles between British and Americans. About a sixth or fifth of the American population was still loyal disposed towards the British rule, but the American Patriots still between 80 and 90 per cent of the colonial area of control while the British dominion to a number of settlements along the Atlantic coast was limited.

In 1776 accepted the delegates of the thirteen colonies American Declaration of Independence in unison and the United States established. The Declaration of Independence would later form the basis of the Constitution was drafted in 1787. Thanks to their political and military alliance with France, the Colonies eventually took a victory over the British and the Treaty of Paris, the American independence in 1783 recognized by Great Britain officially.

The new constitution provided for a large degree of autonomy for each of the new states. Although the revolution political changes brought about, the country saw little difference in their social and economic growth. The real political power still would lie with the upper middle class and big landowners.

Original language Wikipedia article introductions

AFRIKAANS

Die Amerikaanse Rewolusie verwys na die tydperk gedurende die tweede helfte van die18de eeu, toe die Dertien Kolonies – wat later as die Verenigde State van Amerika sou bekend staan – hulle onafhanklikheid van die Britse Ryk gekry het.

In hierdie periode het die Kolonies hulle onderlinge geskille laat staan en gesamentlik in opstand teen die Britse heerskappy gekom, een van die hoofredes hiervoor was die Britse ekonomiese beleid ten opsigte van die kolonies. Die koloniste se eie Puriteinse erfenis en die vryheidsteorieë van die Verligting het ook ‘n groot rol gespeel. Die Amerikaanse Rewolusionêre Oorlog het gevolg en vanaf 1775 tot 1783 geduur. Die oorlog het sy hoogtepunt met die Amerikaanse Onafhanklikheidsverklaring in die jaar 1776 en die Kolonies se militêre oorwinning in 1781 bereik.

Frankryk het ‘n beduidende rol in die oorlog gespeel, onder meer as die organiseerder van ‘n anti-Britse koalisie. Die Franse het die Amerikaners van geld en ammunisie voorsien en ‘n vloot en troepe na Amerika gestuur wat ‘n beslissende rol in die Slag en Beleg van Yorktown gespeel het. Met hulle neerlaag naby Yorktown was die stryd vir die Britte verlore. Die alliansie met Frankryk het meegebring dat ook Spanje en die Nederlandse Republiek later tot die oorlog toegetree het, ter ondersteuning van die Amerikaners.

Die Amerikaanse Rewolusie het met ‘n aantal verreikende intellektuele en sosiale veranderings in die Amerikaanse samelewing gepaard gegaan en onder meer die ideale van republikanisme onder die koloniale bevolking laat posvat. In ‘n aantal deelstate is vurige debatte oor die rol van demokrasie in die regeringstelsel gevoer. Die republikeinse en demokratiese gedagtes het die ou tradisionele sosiale hiërargie omvergewerp en aanleiding gegee tot ‘n nuwe etiek wat die grondbeginsel van Amerika se politieke waardes sou vorm.[1]

Die rewolusionêre periode het in 1763 begin, toe die Franse militêre bedreiging aan die Brits Noord-Amerikaanse kolonies beëindig is. Groot-Brittanje was vasbeslote om die koste van die oorlog teen Frankryk ten minste gedeeltelik deur die kolonies te laat dra en het ‘n aantal nuwe belastings begin hef. Hierdie maatreëls was baie ongewild en is deur die setlaars selfs as onwettig beskou, aangesien hulle nie oor ‘n verkose politieke verteenwoordiging in die Britse parlement beskik het nie.

Nadat onluste in Boston uitgebreek het, is Britse troepe teen die opstandelinge uitgestuur, terwyl die setlaars hulle burgermag gemobiliseer het. In 1775 het die eerste gevegte tussen Britte en Amerikaners plaasgevind. Sowat ‘n sesde of vyfde van die Amerikaanse bevolking was nog steeds lojaal gesind teenoor die Britse gesag, maar die Amerikaanse Patriotte het steeds tussen 80 en 90 persent van die koloniale gebied beheer, terwyl die Britse magsgebied tot ‘n aantal nedersettings langs die Atlantiese kus beperk was.

In 1776 het die afgevaardigdes van die dertien kolonies die Amerikaanse Onafhanklikheidsverklaring eenstemmig aanvaar en die Verenigde State van Amerika gestig. Dié Onafhanklikheidsverklaring sou later die basis vorm van die Grondwet wat in 1787 opgestel is. Danksy hulle politieke en militêre verbond met Frankryk het die Kolonies uiteindelik ‘n oorwinning oor die Britte gehaal en in die Vrede van Parys is die Amerikaanse onafhanklikheid in 1783 deur Groot-Brittanje amptelik erken.

Die nuwe grondwet het voorsiening gemaak vir ‘n groot mate van outonomiteit vir elk van die nuwe state. Alhoewel die rewolusie politieke veranderings meegebring het, het die land weinig verskil in sy sosiale en ekonomiese groei gesien. Die werklike politiese gesag sou egter steeds by die hoër middelklas en groot grondbesitters lê.

JAPANESE

アメリカ合衆国の独立(アメリカがっしゅうこくのどくりつ)では、18世紀後半に北アメリカの13植民地が結束してイギリス帝国の植民地政策に抵抗し、共和制国家として独立したアメリカ独立革命(あめりかどくりつかくめい、英: American Revolution)について詳述する。

CHINESE

美國革命是指在1765年至1783年期間導致了北美十三殖民地脫離大英帝國並且創建了美利堅合眾國的一連串事件與思潮。

美國獨立戰爭(1775年—1783年)是革命的其中一部分,然而革命在莱克星顿與康考德(Concord)打響的第一發子彈之前就已經開始了,並且在英國於約克鎮投降之後還持續下去。約翰·亞當斯寫道:

Cquote1.svg 戰爭開始之前革命就已經帶來了影響,並且已經存在於人們的心中。 Cquote2.svg
關於美國革命的內涵與範圍,有不同的解讀方式。普遍而言大家同意革命大約起源於法印戰爭(1754年—1763年),然後結束於1789年喬治·華盛頓當選為美國第一任總統。

關於美國革命的兩個極端的觀點之一是,美國革命事實上根本不能算是革命,因為它並沒有大幅地轉變整個殖地民社會,而只是將一個遙遠的政府(英國政府)替換成一個當地政府而已。這個觀點的相反觀點則是,美國革命是一場獨特且激進的歷史事件,其帶來的改變對於世界歷史擁有深遠的衝擊。現在大部分觀點則是位於這兩個極端之間。而美國作為第一個脫離殖民統治的主要國家,革命某種程度上鼓勵其他反對殖民地宗主國統治的獨立戰爭,更對之後的法國大革命起了很大的作用。

SPANISH
Revolución de las Trece Colonias, estadounidense o de Estados Unidos, son expresiones utilizadas en la bibliografía en castellano5 para traducir la expresión anglosajona American Revolution, cuya traducción por “Revolución americana” (mucho más usual),6 aunque admitida por el DRAE, no está recomendada en cuanto al uso de la palabra “americano”.7

Al ser al mismo tiempo un proceso revolucionario (el primero de la llamada “era de las revoluciones” que abre la Edad Contemporánea) y un proceso de descolonización (la primera “independencia”), esta revolución significó transformaciones y conflictos internos y un conflicto exterior, entre las “Trece Colonias” británicas de América del Norte y su metrópoli (el Reino Unido).8 De este proceso surgiría una nueva nación (los Estados Unidos de América) que se estableció jurídicamente en textos de gran trascendencia, como la Declaración de Independencia (4 de julio de 1776) y la Constitución (17 de septiembre de 1787).

Desde la década de 1760 la opinión pública de las trece colonias fue tomando conciencia de su identidad y unidad de intereses en una oposición cada vez mayor contra el gobierno británico, que no atendió los llamamientos a la moderación; hasta que la dinámica de desafíos mutuos condujo a un conflicto armado, la guerra de Independencia (1775-1783, aunque las victorias decisivas en el campo de batalla se dieron en octubre de 1781).

El ejemplo estadounidense fue decisivo para que en 1789 el protagonismo revolucionario pasara a Francia, y posteriormente a España y a la América española, dentro de lo que se ha denominado el “ciclo atlántico” de las revoluciones burguesas o revoluciones liberales.9

FRENCH
La Révolution américaine est une période de changements politiques après 1763 dans les treize colonies britanniques d’Amérique du Nord qui ont donné lieu à la guerre d’indépendance des États-Unis contre la Grande-Bretagne (1775-1783). Épisode fondateur de la nation américaine et de la naissance des États-Unis, la révolution se manifesta par des violences contre les autorités britanniques, une guerre contre la métropole et des troubles sociaux.

Afin d’amortir le coût de la guerre de Sept Ans (1756-1763), la Grande-Bretagne imposa des taxes à ses treize colonies d’Amérique du Nord sans les consulter ; les colons américains protestèrent auprès du roi George III et du Parlement du Royaume-Uni, puis lancèrent une révolte que la métropole tenta d’étouffer en envoyant des troupes. Le 4 juillet 1776, les représentants des colonies réunis à Philadelphie adoptèrent la déclaration d’Indépendance, et, après une série de revers de l’armée continentale commandée par George Washington, la guerre contre la Grande-Bretagne tourna à l’avantage des Américains. Les insurgés (en anglais : « insurgents ») reçurent l’aide de volontaires français, puis du gouvernement de Louis XVI, de l’Espagne et des Provinces-Unies. En 1783, Londres dut reconnaître l’indépendance des États-Unis. Le nouveau pays se dota d’une Constitution (1787) qui s’inspirait de la philosophie des Lumières. George Washington fut élu président en 1789 ; mais les premières années du nouveau pays furent marquées par des oppositions politiques et des tensions sociales.

La Révolution américaine créa un nouvel État, une République fédérale dotée de nouvelles institutions. Elle fit émerger une nation américaine distincte du peuple britannique, avec ses symboles et ses mythes fondateurs. Elle eut un retentissement important en Europe, notamment en France. Elle provoqua d’importants changements intellectuels guidés par les idéaux républicain et démocratique, qui forment toujours aujourd’hui les valeurs américaines. Elle donna lieu à des textes de référence (Déclaration d’indépendance, Constitution), dans lesquels sont affirmés les droits à la liberté, à l’égalité et à la recherche du bonheur. Moment fondamental de l’histoire du pays, la Révolution américaine suscita également des oppositions entre les tenants d’un État central fort et ceux qui préféraient donner plus d’autonomie aux États fédérés. Elle provoqua également des tensions entre les Pères fondateurs au sujet de la place du peuple dans la politique. Le sujet fit par la suite l’objet de nombreux débats historiographiques sur la nature des événements et leur influence en Europe. La Révolution américaine marqua de façon durable la culture américaine en inspirant les écrivains, les peintres et les cinéastes.

HEBREW
המהפכה האמריקנית היא מאורע פוליטי שהתרחש בחצייה השני של המאה השמונה עשרה בצפון אמריקה ובמהלכו 13 מושבות פרשו מן האימפריה הבריטית ויצרו מדינה עצמאית בעלת שיטת ממשל דמוקרטית – ארצות הברית. המהפכה כללה מספר שלבים שנוהלו במסגרות שונות לאורך שנים ארוכות, תחילתה של התודעה המהפכנית היא בשינוי הסטטוס קוו ביחסים שבין בריטניה והמושבות, שינוי שכלל מיסוי כבד על המתיישבים וחתירה תחת סמכותם של בתי הנבחרים המקומיים. המיסוי גרם להתמרמרות אזרחית שהובילה להפגנות והתכתשויות עקובות מדם כגון מסיבת התה של בוסטון וטבח בוסטון. ההתכתשויות הפכו למלחמה של ממש בשנת 1775. במהלך המלחמה הכריזו המושבות באופן פורמלי על עצמאותם בשנת 1776 ובכך דחו כל קשר לכתר הבריטי. המלחמה נסתיימה בפועל ב-1781 עם ניצחון המתיישבים בקרב יורקטאון ופורמלית בחוזה פאריס משנת 1783 בו הכירה בריטניה בעצמאות ארצות הברית.

בד בבד עם הפעילות המלחמתית עסקו מנהיגי המהפכה באופי הממשל העצמאי שייסדו. המתיישבים ביקשו ליצור מנגנון שישמור זכויותיהם הדמוקרטיות אך יחד עם זאת חששו מממשל חלש ולא אפקטיבי שיובל לאנרכיה והתפוררות. בשנת 1788 אושרה חוקה המגדירה את סדרי השלטון והיחסים שבין השלטון הפדרלי המרכזי ובין המדינות השונות. החוקה הושלמה בשנת 1791 במגילת הזכויות שכללו עשרה תיקונים לחוקה ואשר נועדו לאזן בין השמירה על זכויות האזרח לבין יצירת ממשל יציב ואפקטיבי.

ארצות הברית הייתה המדינה הדמוקרטית הראשונה מאז הובסה אתונה העתיקה על ידי פיליפוס מוקדון בשנת 336 לפני הספירה. המהפכה שבאימוץ שלטון דמוקרטי על פני שלטון אריסטוקרטי ומלוכני גרמו לתמורות שלטוניות וחברתיות מרחיקות לכת בכל מקום אליו הגיעה שיטת ממשל זאת.

RUSSIAN
Американская революция — политические события в британских колониях Северной Америки в 1775—1783 годах, закончившиеся образованием США. Они были вызваны нежеланием колоний подчиняться интересам метрополии. Понятие «Американская революция» не тождественно[источник не указан 32 дня] понятию «Война за независимость США» — война является частью и завершающим этапом революции.




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